## What frictionless machine can operate indefinitely?

perpetual motion machines

## What is the longest running perpetual motion machine?

the Beverly clock

**Is there a real perpetual motion machine?**

Apparent perpetual motion machines. As “perpetual motion” can exist only in isolated systems, and true isolated systems do not exist, there are not any real “perpetual motion” devices.

**Why can’t perpetual motion machines exist?**

The first law of thermodynamics is the law of conservation of energy. It states that energy is always conserved. To keep a machine moving, the energy applied should stay with the machine without any losses. Because of this fact alone, it is impossible to build perpetual motion machines.

### Can perpetual motion exist in a vacuum?

There are two kinds of perpetual motion: Motion with zero-friction. This can and does exist in vacuum and in atoms and electrons, etc. Motion that produces net work or more energy than it starts with, without any external source of energy.

### Is Newton’s cradle a perpetual motion machine?

Electronic Perpetual Motion Machine by Fovolat ” Newtons Cradle ” Swinging Sticks ” Pendulum Balls ” Desk Toys ” Physics Toys for Kids and Adults. Desk Toys ” A educational toy, as well as an electronic perpetual motion machine with swing balance balls, is a stylish ornament in the office.

**Does a Newton’s Cradle ever stop?**

The first ball has lost its energy and momentum to the second ball, and it the first ball stops. You’ll notice, as the balls swing back and forth, that they eventually come to a stop.

**Can a Newton’s Cradle go forever?**

At least, that’s how it would work in an “ideal” Newton’s cradle, which is to say, one in an environment where only energy, momentum and gravity are acting on the balls, all the collisions are perfectly elastic, and the construction of the cradle is perfect. In that situation, the balls would continue to swing forever.

## How long do Newton’s Cradles last?

three to five years

## Do pendulums ever stop?

The swing continues moving back and forth without any extra outside help until friction (between the air and the swing and between the chains and the attachment points) slows it down and eventually stops it. The time it takes a pendulum to swing back to its original position is called the period of the pendulum.

**Why is Newton’s cradle called Newton’s cradle?**

The Newton’s cradle is a device that demonstrates the conservation of momentum and the conservation of energy with swinging spheres. The device is named after 17th-century English scientist Sir Isaac Newton.

**Will a pendulum in a vacuum swing forever?**

At some points in its swing, the pendulum has more kinetic energy. At other points, it has more potential energy. Of course, no working system is ideal. No pendulum can swing forever because the system loses energy on account of friction.

### What happens to a pendulum in space?

No, it wouldn’t swing back and forth. Since there is no gravity in orbit, there is no force that pulls the pendulum down and make it swing back and forth. If you pushed a pendulum in orbit, the bob of the pendulum would keep going in full circles until they stop due to friction.

### Why does a pendulum continue to swing?

The science behind the pendulum is explained through the forces of gravity and inertia. The Earth’s gravity attracts the pendulum. This swinging-back-and-forth force continues until the force that started the movement is not stronger than gravity, and then the pendulum is at rest again.

**How do I make my pendulum swing longer?**

(Mass does not affect the pendulum’s swing. The longer the length of string, the farther the pendulum falls; and therefore, the longer the period, or back and forth swing of the pendulum. The greater the amplitude, or angle, the farther the pendulum falls; and therefore, the longer the period.)

**Why won’t the pendulum keep swinging?**

Have you recently moved your clock? The reason a clock pendulum often stops swinging, after being moved, is because the clock case now leans at a slightly different angle then it did at its former location. Don’t worry about making your clock absolutely level with the floor and don’t use a level.

## Why does a pendulum swing faster with a shorter string?

The length of the string affects the pendulum’s period such that the longer the length of the string, the longer the pendulum’s period. A pendulum with a longer string has a lower frequency, meaning it swings back and forth less times in a given amount of time than a pendulum with a shorter string length.

## What affects the swing rate of a pendulum?

The only things that affect the period of a simple pendulum are its length and the acceleration due to gravity. The period is completely independent of other factors, such as mass.

**Do heavier pendulums swing faster?**

The longer the pendulum, whether it is a string, metal rod or wire, the slower the pendulum swings. Conversely the shorter the pendulum the faster the swing rate. On grandfather clocks with long pendulums or clocks with shorter ones, the swing rate depends upon the pendulum’s length.

**Why does mass not matter in a pendulum?**

The mass on a pendulum does not affect the swing because force and mass are proportional and when the mass increases so does the force. In the formula, “l” is the length and “g” is the force of gravity. Therefore, the mass does not affect the period of the pendulum.

### What forces act on a pendulum?

There are two dominant forces acting upon a pendulum bob at all times during the course of its motion. There is the force of gravity that acts downward upon the bob. It results from the Earth’s mass attracting the mass of the bob. And there is a tension force acting upward and towards the pivot point of the pendulum.

### How do you calculate the force of a pendulum?

This force is a function of the earth’s constant acceleration due to gravity, the pendulum bob’s mass and the angle between the pendulum and the vertical. Specifically, the force equals the mass times gravity times the sine of that angle ” (F = mg sinθ).

**Does tension do work on a pendulum?**

Tension is an external force and if it did do work upon the pendulum bob it would indeed serve to change the total mechanical energy of the bob. However, the force of tension does not do work since it always acts in a direction perpendicular to the motion of the bob.

**What is the maximum angle of a pendulum?**

Paul Appell pointed out a physical interpretation of the imaginary period: if θ0 is the maximum angle of one pendulum and 180° ‘ θ0 is the maximum angle of another, then the real period of each is the magnitude of the imaginary period of the other.

## How does angle affect pendulum period?

The period of a pendulum does not depend on the mass of the ball, but only on the length of the string. With the assumption of small angles, the frequency and period of the pendulum are independent of the initial angular displacement amplitude. A pendulum will have the same period regardless of its initial angle.

## How do you find the angle of a pendulum?

Then the pendulum law, which was discovered by Galileo Galilei, says that the oscillation period only depends on its length. The formula is t = 2 π √ l / g . This formula provides good values for angles up to α ≤ 5°. The larger the angle, the more inaccurate this estimation will become.

**Why doesn’t amplitude affect the period of a pendulum?**

The period does not depend on the Amplitude. The period depends on k and the mass. The more amplitude the more distance to cover but the faster it will cover the distance. The distance and speed will cancel each other out, so the period will remain the same.

**What happens to period if mass is doubled?**

Thus, if the mass is doubled, the period increases by a factor of √2.

### Does period of a pendulum depend on amplitude?

In fact, though, the pendulum is not quite a simple harmonic oscillator: the period does depend on the amplitude, but provided the angular amplitude is kept small, this is a small effect. The mass cancels between the two sides, pendulums of different masses having the same length behave identically.

### What factors affect the period of a pendulum?

The mass and angle are the only factors that affect the period of a pendulum. b. The mass, the angle and the length are the three variables affecting the period.

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